Estate planning is often associated with middle age or even the retirement years. Millennials, who range in age from 18 to 36, are often too busy managing student loan debt, building careers, and buying homes to give much thought to their mortality. Like other young adults, they may still feel invincible.
On the contrary, these years are the best time to start estate planning. As less traditional family arrangements take over and options expand, you must be prepared in case the worst occurs. If you are younger than 40, here is what you need to do at a minimum for your estate plan and why you should think beyond that.
The Bare Minimum
If you have more debt than assets, never had children, and do not own real estate, it may be difficult to comprehend the importance of a will. There is some truth to this: If you are 24, single, and childless, you likely do not need a large complex estate plan unless you are blessed with early success.
At the very least, start with the bare minimum of estate planning; an advance directive and a power of attorney. Both of these documents are vital for continuing your affairs should you face incapacitation.
An advance directive outlines your preferences for health care should you be rendered incapable of communicating your treatment preferences. This document appoints a healthcare representative to make these decisions on your behalf and indicates your preferences regarding life-sustaining treatment.
Your health care representative can be anyone you trust with that decision including a parent, sibling, best friend or live-in partner. They will act as your voice when you cannot speak. Before you appoint them, let them know what you plan to do, and perhaps have a conversation regarding your medical preferences.
The advance directive also allows you to limit life-sustaining treatment. Many people prefer not to be kept alive by artificial means if they are rendered permanently incapacitated after an accident or terminal illness. These situations often cause substantial heartbreak not only because of the tragedy involved but also when friends, family, and partners have no idea of your preferences.
You can make this a little easier by making your wishes known through an advance directive. This is a complimentary service when you meet with Diane L. Gruber of Gruber & Associates for estate planning.
Power of Attorney
It is often assumed that if you are incapacitated your spouse, parents or cohabitating partner will handle your affairs for you. Unfortunately, if your accounts and business interests are held only in your name, your helpful loved ones will not be able to access them. This can make it impossible for them to make your student loan payments or even take a pet to the vet.
A power of attorney makes this possible. While you recover from what limits you, the agent you appoint in the power of attorney document can have access to your assets. This allows them to pay your bills and even apply for disability benefits on your behalf. If you do not execute a power of attorney, these tasks become difficult. Depending on the extent of your incapacitation, your loved ones may even have to go to court to appoint a conservator to act on your behalf!
These two documents will help in moments of unexpected developments. However, you should consider a will in case the worst occurs.
Why a Will?
Many young adults fail to execute a will because they focus on what they do not have. They do not own real estate or make a substantial income. Some of you may not have children or even a partner. So, why draft a will?
You draft a will because of what you gained so far in life. Even without a large stock portfolio or a mortgage, there are still items that require care should you meet an untimely demise.
You consider your pets family but the law still considers them property. Oregon law has slightly backed off from this with court precedent finding that animals have awareness and allowing animal control officers to act on an animal abuse situation with the same urgency as harm to a person. But that does not help your animal from being vulnerable should something happen to you.
Just as you can name a guardian for children in your will, you can also do the same for a pet. You can name your cohabitating partner or a friend who loves your animals. A will also allows you to name a backup guardian in case your primary appointee cannot care for your pets.
Some people even establish pet trusts to assure good care. You can do this even if you lack assets. Purchase a life insurance policy and make the pet trust your beneficiary. Or if you trust your pet guardian, name them as the beneficiary with the understanding the funds are meant to help them care for your animals.
Basically, establishing a caretaker for your pets in a will assures they are safe if anything happens to you. It also makes the process of rehoming your animals much easier on your family.
There is a movement away from tradition as more young adults decide to cohabitate before marriage. This can have unfortunate consequences if you pass away.
Unless you marry your partner, they have no rights to your assets after death. The intestate statutes, which dictate the distribution of property when someone dies without a will, do not make allowances for non-married partners. You could be engaged but if you die in a horrible accident the day before the wedding, your partner will still be treated as a non-entity by the intestate proceedings.
This can lead to distressful consequences. For example, let’s say you own a home with a mortgage. If you die, the mortgage holder will liquidate the house to pay off the debt.
If you have a will, you can dictate that the equity from that sale passes to your partner. Even if that is only $3,000, that is still enough for them to find a new place to live. However, without a will, that $3,000 will not pass to your partner. It will first go to any children you have, and if you do not have children, your parents and then to your siblings.
This goes for any property you own, including cars, furniture, and other assets. There is no way you can pass property to an unmarried partner without a will.
If you are a single parent, a will helps you designate guardians for your children. Unless you do so, the court will make this determination.
This is not ideal if you are estranged from your family. Your children may be closer to a friend or your live-in partner. However, the court is more likely to grant custody to family members. Even if you come from a close family, it is likely a particular sibling is better suited to take custody of your children.
Guardianship is another preference that is enforceable only through a will. Even if you do not feel you have any other reason to sign a will, if you have children, this reason alone is sufficient.
Many millennials appoint “digital executors.” These are people with access to your social media and other online accounts. Their job is to manage your digital assets should something happen to you.
Sites like Twitter and Facebook are notoriously bad at dealing with death. Pages often remain accessible with reminders going out to friends and family about your birthday and other milestone events. Unfortunately, without someone knowing your passwords, it is often impossible to shut down these accounts.
There are other digital assets that could also prove troublesome. If you rent out a room on Airbnb, the platform will continue making that room available for rent until someone shuts down the account. Your family could be at your home grieving and sorting your possessions only for an Airbnb patron to suddenly show up wanting access to the rented room.
Besides these accounts, you likely own Kindle books, iTune music libraries, and maintain subscriptions on Audible or Netflix. Unless you appoint someone to deal with these online accounts, they will likely continue charging bank accounts or accruing balances after you pass away, causing more issues that will delay the closure of your estate.
There are other estate planning options that could be relevant to your situation. If your children have special needs or you are a trust beneficiary, you likely need to review your situation and create a more customized estate plan.
Planning now is a good precaution. At the very least, it starts a habit that will make wealth management easier as you become older. To start the estate planning process, contact Diane L. Gruber, Attorney at Law to schedule a consultation.
There are triggering events which make estate planning, or editing an estate plan, necessary in Oregon. Remarriage is one of these triggers. This is especially true if your new marriage includes children from previous marriages, stepchildren, and additional children from your current marriage.
Even in the most well-adjusted blended families, death challenges relationships. This makes a clear estate plan vital if you want to provide for family members while also reducing conflict. You must also avoid making the same estate planning assumptions that are appropriate in first marriages but are likely to backfire in subsequent ones. Here are four unique considerations when creating an estate plan after remarriage.
Conflicts of Interest
The natural inclination is to leave everything to your spouse and for your spouse to do the same. This is a safe avenue in first marriages when children only come from that marriage.
Remarriage changes that dynamic. If you pass all your property and money to your current spouse, understand that they have no obligation to consider your children from a previous marriage. Your death may create distance between them and if your current spouse outlives you considerably, he or she will be more likely to account for his or her own children and any new spouse. They are not likely to pass property to your children, especially if they have not spoken to each other for years.
One solution is to place your property in trust to provide income to your current spouse. Once your spouse passes away, remaining property is distributed to your children. You may include children from both your previous and current marriages and any stepchildren in that distribution.
If you decide to take this approach, appoint an uninterested third party to serve as trustee. Otherwise, there is a strong possibility of a conflict of interest based on self-interest.
If you appoint your spouse as the trustee, they may choose to invest your assets in low-yield options that leave nothing for your children once your spouse passes away. Likewise, your children may choose more long-term approaches that leave your current spouse inadequate income. An independent trustee is more likely to manage assets to everyone’s advantage.
Sometimes, the best approach to provide for children is with non-probate assets. Making them beneficiaries on your life insurance, retirement, and investment accounts is an excellent way of ensuring they receive something after your death. You are then safe to pass property and money to your spouse through your will.
This strategy is easier and less expensive than a trust but it requires attention to detail. Check the beneficiary designations on these assets and change them now. Most importantly, let your family know you made these changes and why. You do not want your spouse to expect a life insurance payout only to find out after your death that they are no longer entitled to those funds.
Your estate plan will likely include an advance directive and a durable power of attorney. These cover decision-making should you become incapacitated. The advance directive appoints a health care representative who makes health care decisions on your behalf. A power of attorney appoints an agent who manages your financial and business affairs if you are unable to do so. A power of attorney dies when you do.
Spouses are often the first choice for these appointments. In blended families, this may not be the best idea. Hurt feelings and conflict can arise if your children from a previous marriage do not feel your spouse is acting in your best interest or puts his or her self-interest above your needs.
You are better off choosing family members who are suited to these tasks rather than focus on relationship status. For example, you may discuss end-of-life decisions more frequently with an adult child rather than your spouse. Your child may listen better while your spouse shuts down when you bring up the topic. Or you may run a small business with a daughter, who is likely a better candidate to be your power of attorney.
The important part is, you want to appoint individuals to get along well with all family members, including your spouse. If there is so much tension that this is impossible, consider appointing someone outside your immediate blended family, like a close friend or sibling.
Dangers of Intestacy (when you don’t have a Will)
It may be tempting to do nothing and let intestate statutes take control. This may seem to prevent difficult discussions but it will only lead to many, many problems for your loved ones after you pass away.
Intestate succession only considers blood relatives. It will ensure support for spouses, children, parents, and even siblings. But if you are close to your stepchildren and want them to inherit assets or take over a small business, intestate succession will not allow that. Your stepchildren may also have special needs that you want to be provided for if you pass away. Again, intestate succession will not even take them in account, even if you had a close relationship. This only changes if you adopted them, which often does not occur if you remarry their parent when they are adults.
Blended families offer distinct estate planning challenges, but they are not surmountable. Find solutions by discussing them with an Oregon estate planning attorney. Call Diane L. Gruber today to schedule a consultation.
When you visit the office of Diane L. Gruber, Attorney at Law, for your estate planning appointment, we frequently suggest other documents in addition to your will or trust. One of these includes a durable power of attorney. This document appoints an agent to handle your financial or business affairs if you are incapacitated or unavailable. It becomes invalid when you die.
This is a fairly simple document that does not add much to your estate planning expenses. When you need it, it is often a dire situation which makes this an essential part of long-term care and planning. If you do not have a power of attorney when you need one, it can make things difficult for you and your family members. Here are three possible horror scenarios if you do not have a valid power of attorney.
Unmanaged Insurance Claims
A power of attorney may go into effect immediately or if you become incapacitated. Since incapacitation often leads to filing a disability insurance claim, you may need an agent to handle that process for you.
However, an insurance company is not going to let just anyone file the forms, grant permission to access your medical records or make decisions during claim processing. Your spouse is not automatically granted this privilege since the law sees married people as unique individuals, not one unit. The only way for your spouse, sibling, business associate or good friend to help you through this process is with a power of attorney. When you appoint any of these people as an agent, they only need to provide the claims adjuster with the power of attorney and that grants them the authority to manage your claim.
Otherwise, appointing an agent to act on your behalf becomes expensive and complex. You will secure disability benefits quicker if you prepare just in case of incapacitation.
Limited Access to Assets
If you do not have a joint checking account with your spouse or you have business assets that are only in your name, your family will not have access to these income sources if you are incapacitated in a hospital bed. The only way your separate assets can be used for your benefit is if you execute a power of attorney.
This can be especially necessary if your incapacitation is for the long-term or you face an uncertain prognosis. The power of attorney may grant permission to a business partner to transfer income to your family or allow your spouse to access a business account.
This not only provides income but assures other functions are carried out too–like paying bills, filling out automatic deposit forms, and managing investments. If you are single, it is unlikely you have a joint owner on your accounts. Unless you want to return from incapacitation with a defaulted mortgage and past-due bills, you want to appoint someone to manage these affairs in case you are unable to do so yourself.
Poor Asset Management
Sometimes, it is a matter of finding the best person for the job. Powers of attorney also apply if you are leaving the country for a while and need someone to manage your property in the United States. Sometimes, that can end with a bad surprise when you return home.
For example, you may allow a spendthrift relative to stay in your home while you decide to live in Italy for the next five years. It may be difficult to trust this relative to pay the mortgage on time or keep utility bills current.
However, with a power of attorney, you can appoint a responsible manager for your home and its expenses. This individual can pay the mortgage and utilities from your account, and demand reimbursement each month from your temporary resident. If they fail to pay, your agent can start eviction procedures on your behalf by hiring an attorney and making decisions throughout the case. Your interests are protected better if you go this route rather than rely on someone who may not follow through.
There are also instances where clients trust their oldest child more than their spouse to make investment and financial decisions. Single people who live estranged from their families may desire that their live-in partner or best friend handle assets in case of absence or incapacitation. Just because an individual is a joint owner or physically present does not necessarily mean your best interests motivate them. You take better control of your situation with a power of attorney.
So when we recommend a power of attorney at your estate planning appointment, do not scoff. Perhaps the circumstances requiring one will never arise. But if they do, you want to make everything as easy as possible for you and your family. Plan for contingencies and make an appointment with Diane L. Gruber today to create a solid estate plan.
Most people do not need to avoid probate. They need the right tools to make it easier. The first step to that is drafting a will and informing loved ones of its location and contents.
Even then, the challenges are only beginning. In addition to managing the paperwork and legal formalities that follow a death, your loved ones are also facing their grief. This is an overwhelming time where even a simple telephone call to a life insurance company feels like a monumental task.
Efforts made now can make this easier for your friends and family in the future. Once you finish your will, complete these five tasks to assure a more efficient probate process for your loved ones.
Keep It All Together
Once you draft a will, keep the original in a safety deposit box, a copy with your attorney, and another copy with your executor, the person named in your will to manage your estate. Let other family members or close friends know you have a will and who has copies of it.
Wills do no favors if they are kept secret. If no one knows you have a will and/or cannot find it, then your loved ones will be forced to file an intestate probate in order to transfer your assets. An intestate probate is a probate without a will. It is more time-consuming and more expensive than a probate with a will. Moreover, this leaves your loved ones wondering what to do. A will expresses your wishes and directs your loved ones what you want to become of your assets after your death.
Keep other important documents near your will as well. These may include real estate papers, car titles, stock certificates, and life insurance policies. If all these documents are together in one place, life for your grieving executor just became easier.
Make Lists Now
One of the largest tasks in probate proceedings is the inventory. This is a list of all your assets and their values. The court uses it to determine the value of your estate and the distribution of your property.
Start keeping updated lists now to make this job easier for your grieving relatives. If you have a special collection of art, jewelry or other high-value items, keep track of these items in a spreadsheet or even a notebook. List values if you have them. Your executor may have to get some items appraised, but even just a list will make the inventory step easier for your executor.
If a loved one is a joint owner on a real estate deed or car title, tell them. This makes it easier for them to take possession of these items after you die and keeps the asset out of probate. The same is true for any life insurance policies. If beneficiaries know they are entitled to these funds, they may be able to collect them without the involvement of the court or your executor.
Likewise, if there are family members who are not receiving any of your property, be direct about this situation and who is affected. You may want to tell a trusted family member. Being clear about all your wishes, even those that work against family members, prevents problems after your death.
Organize Your Finances
Just as you own assets, you may also carry debt. Keep mortgage documents, credit card statements, and medical bills in an accessible place and maintain a current list. Then when you executor must send out notices to creditors, they do not have to engage in an exhaustive search to find them all.
Provide Attorney Contact Information
When you pass away and your family and friends grieve, your estate planning attorney can be a guiding voice of reason during a difficult time. It is much easier to complete a probate filing with the attorney who knows you, and drafted your will, then to start from scratch with a new attorney.
Your attorney’s name, address, telephone number, and email address should be in the margins of your will. Inform your family members who you hired to handle your estate planning. Even if your attorney moves from the area or retires, having that information can still help your loved ones find someone else to represent them in the probate proceeding.
Diane L. Gruber, Attorney at Law, offers estate planning and probate guidance for Oregon residents. Not only can we design an estate plan that best reflects your wishes but we can make the probate process more efficient and effective for your family. Contact our office today to schedule an estate planning or probate consultation.
Avoiding probate should not be your primary goal when estate planning in Oregon. For most people, probate is a quick process that allows you an appropriate vehicle for distributing assets, protecting loved ones, and honoring your charitable wishes. Trust companies convince you otherwise so you will buy their product–not because it necessarily works to your advantage.
But there are exceptions. Our law office encounters a few clients who may benefit from avoiding probate and should create a trust as their main estate planning vehicle. Here are four possible reasons why clients may need to establish a trust in order to avoid probate.
Need for Continuous Asset Management
During the probate process, your assets are essentially placed on hold until the court approves their distribution. This can be troublesome if your assets generate income that may be vital to supporting your family.
If you own a business, rental properties or even investment accounts, these assets continue to generate income but that cannot be distributed unless a special motion is filed with the court or probate concludes with assets being liquidated or passed on to their new owners. In cases of incapacity, a power of attorney allows an agent to pay bills or distribute income. But once you die, that agent no longer has the authority to accomplish those tasks.
When you own multiple income-producing assets, a living trust may be your best option. It continues distributing income until it is dissolved which reduces interruption of support and hardship.
Probate is a public process. Technically, anyone can access your court files and see your asset inventory and the value of your estate.
This creates anxiety for some people. A contentious divorce or family estrangement leads some clients to want to keep the assets of their estate private. Sometimes, the motivation is less conflict-driven. Clients may not wish to compromise their family members’ safety by making the ownership of high-value property public. There is always a risk that if it is known a family member owns an expensive car or rare work of art, they may become a target for crime.
In most cases, you do not need to keep the distribution of your assets after death private. If you are worried about social security or credit card account numbers, those are kept private anyway. However, if you believe a public probate will compromise safety or heighten tensions within your family, a trust could be a better option for you.
When assets are placed in a trust, they technically no longer belong to you. They belong to the trust which is why they are not subject to probate proceedings.
This works well for clients whose estate is valued over $1 million. You can move assets into a trust and reduce the estate’s overall taxable value. Income and property are then distributed to your loved ones rather than used to pay a tax burden.
The cost of probate in Oregon is modest compared to some other states. Unless your estate exceeds $1 million, you are unlikely to lose a significant amount of it in administration fees or taxes.
However, if you live in Oregon and own property in other states, it is likely that you will need an ancillary probate in each of those states, as well. An Oregon probate proceeding cannot address property outside the state. If you own a hunting cabin in Alaska, for example, you must file a separate probate proceeding there.
People who own a number of out-of-state property and investments will see their costs rise with each separate probate proceeding. Placing out-of-state assets in trust or owning them jointly with a spouse or other family members may prevent this dilemma.
Before you choose a trust company and decide to transfer all your assets into a trust, see if that is necessary for you. Diane L. Gruber advises clients on all their Oregon estate planning options including those for avoiding probate. Contact us today to schedule a consultation and see what is necessary for you.